Oftalmology

Specialty that deals with clinical and surgical diseases of the eye.

 

Refractive surgery, commonly known as LASIK, has the most advanced techniques for the correction of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism, reducing the refractive error, using an excimer laser, an intervention that lasts a few minutes. Allows, in almost all patients, in a safe and effective manner, improve eyesight, leading to the comfort and freedom to dispense with the use of glasses or contact lenses.

A cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye responsible for focusing the image and for producing clear, sharp images. In most people, cataracts are a natural result of aging, leading to blurred vision, difficulty reading, driving or recognizing faces.

Phacoemulsification is a recent technique that allows you to remove the cataract through the action of ultrasound.

When performing a cataract surgery, the lens having cataract is replaced by an artificial lens consisting of acrylate derivatives - intraocular lenses, allowing a clear view.

It is the main cause of vision loss in adults over 55 years cause.

Eye injuries, certain medications, and diseases such as diabetes and alcoholism can also cause cataracts.

A pterygium is a fibro-vascular membrane that grows over the cornea, much like the conjunctiva (the white of the eye). Generally invades the cornea at the nasal side, but can also occur from the temporal side or at other locations.

The main symptoms are red and irritated eye and photophobia. The exact cause is not yet fully defined, and is more common in people who spend a lot of time outdoors, especially during the summer. Prolonged exposure to sunlight, especially to ultraviolet rays, and chronic eye irritation due to dry, hot, dust and environmental conditions play an important role in the development of this pathology.

The keratoconus is a common abnormality of the cornea, with an approximate prevalence of 50 per 100,000 persons in which the central and paracentral area of ​​the cornea undergoes a progressive thinning and increasing curvature, such that the cornea acquires the appearance of a cone . Usually occurs in adolescence or early adulthood and progresses over the next 10 to 20 years.

With the appearance of intracorneal rings, which aim to rectify the affected area of the cornea and prevent the development of keratoconus, it became possible to visually rehabilitate these patients, enabling the use of glasses and / or contact lenses again. The best attitude in keratoconus is regular and periodic monitoring of the patient, so that we can take measures in time to improve his well-being and faster visual recovery.

If the use of glasses and / or contact lenses become impossible, due to the evolution of the disease, intracorneal rings have no indication and corneal transplantation becomes the treatment of choice.

The implantation of intraocular lenses to correct high myopia began in the fifties. Since then the quality of the lenses evolved constantly, and this time, the stability of the lens is ensured by setting the iris.

Currently these lenses allow the correction of myopia not only but also, hyperopia and astigmatism.

Neovascularization is the growth of new vessels in the periphery of the cornea in patients frequent use of lenses ("daily" or "monthly" contact lenses - hydrophilic).

It is probably caused by the sharp decrease in oxygenation (hypoxia) and the chronic trauma of the peripheral zone of the cornea (limbus), leading to the growth of new vessels, due to the release of angiogenic mediators.

Neovascular growth of these vessels, lower than 2 mm is acceptable, but if they extend more than 2 mm into the cornea, the use of contact lenses should be immediately discontinued, otherwise, pathological conditions will be developed.

The corneal transplantation or penetrating keratoplasty surgery, refers to replacing part of the cornea of a patient by another from a donor eye.

Advances in microsurgery, in suture materials, means of preservation and postoperative therapy, allowed huge advances in this type of surgery., Being its most frequent indication to decreased visual acuity, secondary to corneal opacity. Other indications include abnormal curvature correction of the cornea (keratoconus), treatment of puncture and thinning, pain relief, removal of infectious or neoplastic focus and cosmetic purposes.

Refers to the diagnosis and treatment of the most prevalent conditions in children, including:

  • Amblyopia, commonly called lazy eye;
  • Refractive errors, since the correct development of cerebral vision needs equally well focused images for the two eyes;
  • Pediatric Glaucoma, wich is completely different from adult glaucoma and usually requires surgery;
  • Eyelid ptosis on the upper lid is drooping;
  • Retinoblastoma is a rare form of tumor of nerve cells in the retina;
  • Cataract, with a clouding of the lens;
  • Strabismus, which is a defect of alignment of the eyes;
  • Retinopathy of prematurity, occurring in the first weeks of life and can lead to blindness;
  • Tearing in children, that occurs normally due to a congenital obstruction of the nasolacrimal canal.

Glaucoma refers to a group of eye diseases that damage the optic nerve that carries visual information from the eye to the brain usually resulting from an increased intraocular pressure in the eye.

There are four main types of glaucoma:

  • Open-angle glaucoma (chronic);
  • Angle-closure glaucoma (acute);
  • Congenital glaucoma;
  • Secondary glaucoma.

The front of the eye is filled with a clear fluid called aqueous humor, constantly produced in the back of the eye and out of the eye through channels in front of the eye, an area called the anterior cavity, or simply Angle . Any factor that reduces or blocks the flow of this fluid out of the eye provokes an increase in intraocular pressure. In most cases of glaucoma, the high pressure causes increase in the main nerve damage in the eye, the optic nerve.

Diabetic retinopathy is a major ocular manifestation of diabetes, characterized by gradual and progressive changes in retinal microcirculation, such as:

  • increased vascular permeability
  • nonperfusion area
  • proliferation of abnormal retinal vessels

The most important risk factors related to its occurrence are:

  • the duration of diabetes
  • hypertension
  • dyslipidemias
  • smoking

Good metabolic balance and blood glucose are important in disease control, as well as its monitoring and timely treatment.

 

The retina is the inner layer of the eye responsible for image formation and by our vision. When detachment occurs, vision decreases to the point of not seeing anything more.

The retinal detachment is accompanied by symptoms such as flashing lights, dark spots moving and partial loss of vision. This perception does not determine retinal detachment, but their rampant incresing, followed by the appearance of small spots with purple tone in the peripheral regions of vision does.

What is the treatment for retinal detachment?

The treatment of retinal detachment surgery is depending on the type, size and location of existing detachment, in general, five types of surgery to correct a gap:

  • intraocular gas injection
  • conventional retinopexy
  • Posterior vitrectomy using laser
  • posterior vitrectomy associated with intraocular injection of silicone
  • combination of the aforementioned operations